Terence McKenna - Taxonomy of Illusion

What I wanted to talk about this evening is illusions. I called the lecture the Taxonomy of Illusion, because I think it’s interesting to attempt to classify and relate the various kinds of illusions that stand between us and that presupposed naked, radiant truth – (As if on cue, a larsen echo surges through the speakers. All laugh.) – that has more or less driven the engines of Western philosophy since Plato.

Of course, the great victory of modernity is to disabuse ourselves of such naive notions, but they die hard, I think. Ralph mentioned my latest book and I don’t intend to talk about the book particulary, but in the book I quote the only piece of poetry in the whole thing not written by me. It relates to this on many levels, this question of illusion and the relatiohsip of the self to the real, and where the world falls in that equation, and the limits of knowledge, and all that other good psychedelic stuff that needs to be considered.

The quote is from Pale Fire by Vladimir Nabokov, and if you don’t know this book, you should. It is without doubt one of the funniest books in the English language, and it takes the form of a very long poem, and then the commentary upon this poem. The poem is written by a character that Nabokov creates named John Shade.

That rare phenomenon The iridule—when, beautiful and strange, In a bright sky above a mountain range One opal cloudlet in an oval form Reflects the rainbow of a thunderstorm Which in a distant valley has been staged For we are most artistically caged

This is a very strange piece of poetry. This is not even like Wallace Stevens at his most obscure. In the first place, this word: the iridule. You won’t find this word in any dictionary, and yet I sensed that this is obviously the word for this phenomenon. I know what he’s talking about. I have seen this opal cloudlet in an oval form which reflects the rainbow of a thunderstorm in a distant place. Here, we are in the realm of mirage and Nature as mirage and Nature as mirrored labyrinth. The final line about being artistically caged – this is, I think, where the psychedelics come in, because psychedelics allow one to pierce beyond the veil of cultural illusion, beyond the linguistic momentum of what has been handed on.

The faith of Tantra and magic and psychedelics is that the apparent intransigent appearance of the world can somehow be overcome by an act of magic. I used to collect tibetan Tonkas, and of the texts which go with some of these Tonkas, I remember one in particular: “All things being reversed, the great God appears instantly.” You see, the precondition for magic is the reversal of causality, somehow.

As moderns, we have grown to give great credence to the idea that the world is largely a linguistic structure, largely created through the participation of the observer, but we have not been able to take that perception and turn it into a technology. Instead, we are still driven by the blind momentum of atomic struture.

Who was it that said “the atoms blindly run”? And then, I think it was Whitehead who said “Yes, but in the body they run blindly according to the body’s plan”. What I think we’re dealing with are patterns, and then the indeterminate dimensions between patterns. It’s in those indeterminate places, within the interstices of reality that the observer is able to establish him or herself, and then model back the world.

The reason I wanted to talk about a taxonomy of illusion, was because I thought it was important to relate the various styles of hyper-seeing, non-seeing and mis-seeing together, because I think that the heuristic consequences of doing that are to realize just how shifting the sands are, upon which the ontological edifice of Western thinking rests. That’s always the point, you see: to deconstruct Western civilization, because its toxic consequences are now clear for everyone to see.

The first category or grand family of illusions which we would put into our taxonomic key would be social illusions. Later, we can argue this, but at this point in the discussion, illusion is “slash-“ delusion, so the great social illusions/delusions are sexism, racism, xenophobia, egoism, classism. The world is riddled and ruled by the social illusions and no-one is free of them. They consitute one broad category.

I might just mention as an aside, a book which was very influential on me and I’ve never heard anybody else ever mention it. A book by Rawcliffe called Illusions and Delusions of the Supernatural and the Occult. This was a 19th century book that I as a kid got in a Dover reprint. It was in a wonderful era where the study of anomalies was still young, so this book has everything poured in together from Mesmer’s ectoplasm to people who has tumors that they carried around in wheelbarrows, to birds that did advanced arithmetic, etc. It was very much from the point of view of Victorian Rationalism, and it also mentioned psychedelics. What it really was, was a catalog of edges. It’s only then, in the subsequent 35 years, that that wunderkammer approach to illusion – by wunderkammer I’m referring to era before the rise of Linnean natural science, where naturalists would simply fill cabinets with anomalous fascinating and strange objects, so the tarantulas might be mixed in with the chambered nautiluses, which might be stirred into the Zuni fetishes. Later, these wunderkammers – curiosity cabinets in English – gave way to Linnean taxonomy. In the same way, over the past hundred years, the study of illusion and anomaly has attempted to rationalize itself.

Spatial illusions are an entirely different family of illusory phenomena. We all have encountered at some level the specially-constructed environments that occur in behavioral psyhcology labs that trick you into thinking that the person in the foreground is smaller than the person in the background, etc. These kinds of illusions are probably fairly trivial, except that they address perception, and when we get to psychedelics as a source of illusion, this is more important.

Another great family of illusions is ontological illusions. Illusions of states of being, which may or may not in fact be reflected in reality. UFOs, Bigfoot, crop circles, the entire panoply of poltergeist phenomena. Ontological illusions. These are very interesting, and one could give time to this alone, because there are persistent ontological illusions in the human sensorium, such as angels, elves, demons, djinns, afreets, nixies and sprites, that crowd.

There are ontological illusions that seem tied to the evolving modalities of the group mind. UFOs are an obvious example. Aside from the fact that people have occasionally seen strange things in the sky, the UFO archetype really emerges in the late 1940’s with the Rainier lights. Then, a whole set of taxonomic features of this particular brand of illusion coalesce: the silvery discs, the alien denizens with the cat eyes and the rubbery flesh, those same guys who give you unscheduled proctological examinations in the middle of the night. (audience laughs) Notice that that particular taxonomic feature has been added recently through the assiduously careful scientific research of Strieber and company.

Cattle mutilation is an interesting one. Very confined in time and space. Crop circles, similarly. It’s not that there aren’t crop circles, but what we have is essentially a pattern in an English wheat field, but then radiating out from that are the illusions of those who cast their gaze upon it, those who proclaim it telluric communication or particle beam research carried on by the Air Force. In one version, it was supposed that a particular crop circle had been decoded and found to be a lost Sumerian language which when decoded said basically “Don’t stop here.” It was essentially a no-parking zone for time machines. They were saying: “This entire century, just maintain speed and do not stop!”.

Psychedelic illusions – again, this is related category, but different from these ontological illusions. By illusion, I mean that these are confrontations with phenomena, an apparently subjective ground and an assumed rational observer, where there is a more-than-ordinary amount of ambiguity. I mean, most of reality is illusory, it’s just that we do each other the courtesy of not pointing this out.

Actually, you trace a very thin data path through the world, and most of what we assume without question, we have very little evidence for. Something as simple as the fact that Mt. Everest is the highest mountain in the world. First of all, very few people have ever seen it. I saw it, and because I saw it from a distance of about 500 miles, it looked quite small. My own testimony as to whether it was the highest mountain in the world would be fairly unreliable. Besides, what does that mean anyhow, and how the hell do you figure it out? Here, we have one mountain in the Himalayas and another in Bolivia, and you’re telling me you know which is the higher mountain? It must rest on a whole bunch of weird and fishy assumptions, resting on even shakier data, and that’s just the question of the highest mountain in the world, let alone the state of your lover’s heart – or your banker’s, for that matter.

What’s important about the psychedelic family of illusions is that they propel the entire issue of illusion to center stage, because they demonstrate that the assumed bedrock of “ordinary perception” is in fact no bedrock at all. It’s simply a very soft dwell-point somewhere in the mysteries of metabolism. Consciousness, whatever its relationship to the brain, is spectaculary affected by the perturbation of the physical brain by exogenously introduced pseudo-neurotransmitters.

Alexander Shulgin has secured in his work that you can take a molecule that is completely inactive, and by moving one atom to a different place on the ring, you can change this into a psychoactive compound. You could hardly have a neater demonstration of the quantum-mechanical foundation of consciousness, because you’ve moved one atom and you’ve moved the mountains of mind five hundred miles from where they were resting when last you looked. It’s quite spectacular. Strangely enough, the materialists always claim this, they just put different emphasis on the words. Mind is a kind of iridescence upon metabolism. For the materialists, that was a dismissal, because to them what iridescence meant was a tertiary phenomnenan, not inimical to the structure of matter, but necessarily perceived only through the intercession of an observer. It’s somehow a more fragile part of Nature than the rocks, the trees and the waters, because it’s a play between light and mind. Again, a kind of illusion, a mirage.

In a very different category of illusion, and this is one worth considering because it’s the one we tend not to place in this category. That is the illusion of materialism. This has broken down completely. The idea that the material world was real sustained the investigation of nature from Parmenides to the early years of the 20th century. In virtually the entire history of human engagement in the abstract intellectual modeling of matter, matter was assumed to be pretty much as presented in perception: solid, enduring, having simple location – meaning it stays where you put it, and when you look there again, it’s there. Now, one of the best kept dirty secrets of Western civilization is that the core science, which is physics, the science which was always the envy of all the other sciences for its mathematical formalism and its incredible predictive ability – because it’s not unusual in physics to predict from theory an experimental result to the third or fourth decimal. This is spectacular congruence between theory and experiment. You don’t get that in the social sciences – need I mention – or even in physical chemistry.

However the investigation of matter has now been pushed to such extremes that matter has shed its easily recognized and familiar face has become something much slipperier, much more dependent on the presence of the observer, much less easily located in space and time, something much more of the nature of thought than of the familiar conception of matter. This word has not reached even as far as biology yet. The biologists are still laboring under the notion of the reality of physical material.

If any of you read this book that was published last year with much ado called Consciousness Explained – actually, it should have been called Consciousness Explained Away. Here was an effort to drag out all the old material paradigms and explain away consciousness. The problem is, matter itself has taken on the qualities of mind. As this realization relativizes the life sciences, there is going to be a new interest in the potential for psychedelics to elucidate mental functioning, because what will become respectable is talk of the observer. This is what has invaded physics. The most rarefied and formal of all the sciences had, in order to make sense of its enterprise, to allow the observer a kind of primacy with the thing observed. As this seeps into the Life Sciences and Psychology, hopefully the phobia of actually involving yourself in your field of study that informs all these reductionist, ratomorphic types in the schools of Psychology will be overturned.

Having flayed that dead horse sufficiently…

Another category of illusion that needs to be addressed is philosophical/religious illusion. This is the idea that by a direct appeal to intuition, we can somehow gain a foothold on Truth. I think this is as specious as the notion that we can gain a foothold on truth through reason or experiment. This foothold on truth idea may have to be given up. I’m sure some of you have heard me recall the situation where Wittgenstein was raving about something, and one of his students said: “But is it the truth?” and he said: “Well, it’s true enough!”. This really means a great divide has been crossed, when you can say that, because it means you understand now that you are no longer a fairy in a platonic super-world, but that you are actually a monkey with a brain full of mush trying to sort out what’s right in front of you. “True enough” is what we should probably rest with.

Illusions abound. For instance – speaking of these religious ontologies – I was talking to someone recently who amazed me because I’ve always thought of them as a person of great intelligence but who would never be a reclaimed from the arms of Mother Church. We had dinner last week, and he said: “I realized, it finally comes down to: Do you believe the universe is being run by the ghost of a Galilean politician?” And he said: “Put that way, I realized that it wasn’t!” Other religious myths are less easily undone. Monotheism has an appealing philosophical neatness, but it leads apparently to coiterectomy, so you want to watch that. This search for philosophical neatness may make for strange bedfellows.

I love the illusion of Buddhism: it’s the illusion that illusion can be transcended. Again, not really doing genuflexion to be animal nature, it’s amazing to me – if you were to meet the termite who stated that his or her goal in life was the perfect modeling of the cosmos, you would think it was quite a comic undertaking. Yet, how different are we that we should presume to more than a shadow of a shadow of the truth?

Finally – completing my laundry list here – linguistic truth or the truth of language and the illusions that language weaves. Someone quite intelligent said: “Language was invented so that people could lie.” In other words, it gives you that fudge factor of obfuscation where somebody says: “Why did you do that?” Well, the best approach is: “I didn’t do that! You thought I did that. What you thought you saw you didn’t see.” I suppose that lawyers are the people who have done the finest work with language, and behind them, politicians.

The true potential for language to elevate and to unite the community was betrayed early on into the production of illusory and ideological goods which could then be marketed among the people to spread confusion. Psychedelics reflect on this because psychedelics stretch and pull and melt and recast the illusion-producing machinery of language. If you had to say the one thing that psychedelics do for everyone, whether they have a good trip or a bad trip – because it’s up to them to interpret what they make of this – is that it shows you the relativity of your cultural viewpoint. It’s just your point of view. You inherited from the geographical area, a culture, a set of parents. It has no relationship whatsoever to anything anchored in some kind of metaphysical super-space. It’s just your cultural point of view.

Travel, actually, does the same thing. I’ve always felt that there was a weird affinity between psychedelics and travel. I suppose many people have, or we wouldn’t call it a trip, we wouldn’t call it a journey. Travel shows you the relativity of culture. What’s really happening when you travel is that you are moving from one language domain to another. We don’t think of it that way, but that is in fact what is happening. You can never see the Amazon jungle if you keep intact the bubble of linguistic assumptions of the place you started out from. Every place will withhold it’s secrets from you. I learned this in the Amazon because the first time I went, I had virtually no botany, and to me the jungle was green. That’s what it was. It had many shades of green and it was beautiful and it was this and that, but it was basically green. The second time I went, I was with a lot of botanists, and within days you learn the families, that’s how they do it. With the same taxonomy I’m here applying to illusion, was really developed to describe plants and animals. So, you learn the families: the plans with square stams, the plans with the opposed leaves, the plants with a particular flower structure. Once you know the families, then you have a linguistic wedge in.

The corrupting or curious thing about language is that like all tools, and shapes its user in ways that are not suspected until it’s too late. For instance, the way in which Western civilization is totally obsessed with the subject-object relationship. It’s the basis of our science, or polity, our relations to commerce, the concept of product, all of these things come out of the subject-object relationship, which is an aspect of language.

I point all this out, because in talking about my new book, somebody said that I had gone too far. (Audience laughs.) I was amused because it implied: “From what?” It’s not like there is a King’s X where graybeards in white coats tend the sacred vestal fires of reality. There is no reality, they are only people who know this and people who don’t know this and are therefore being manipulated by the people who do know it. This is true. Or – true enough!

One of the things that has amazed me with my own personal career – because I started out basically shoveling snow in a cow town in Colorado, and by fate or who knows what, have come to the present position – what I noticed as I traverse levels on a supposed ladder of success, where you would expect there to be more and more competition and people and activity. Actually, it gets emptier and emptier. There is nobody minding the store, as far as I can tell. This is why I am so unsympathetic to conspiracy theory. We could use a few conspiracies! Nobody is minding the store. Everybody is getting rich – personally rich – so they don’t have time to advance the Aryan race or the Council of Zion or any of this fantasy and illusion that hauns the world of conspiracy theory.

Rather, it seems that everything is being left pretty much to develop on its own, because people are afraid to grab or touch the levers and buttons in the control room of the historical vehicle. What that means, then, is that people who can cut through these many illusions, the illusion of materialism, the illusion of business as usual, the illusion of benevolent institutions carefully guiding us toward reasonable destinies, if you cut through all that, if you disabuse yourself of all that, you will empower yourself to eventually be able to stand up in delicate social and political situations and just say: “Bullshit! That’s bullshit.”

This is worth considering doing, simply because we have an imperiled planet on our hands. We have been, for a long time the victims of illusion. Western civilization, Stephen Dedalus was right, history is a nightmare from which one must awaken. Quite literally, we have been blind to what we have been doing. We are blind at this moment to what we are doing. If, in a single moment, the actual nature of our predicament were to fully make itself out in the mind of any one of us, I think it would be paralyzing. It would be horrifying. We have waited until the last moment of the last hour. The house is burning down around us and we rouse ourselves from the stupor of Materialism, the stupor of Christianity and Scientism, the stupor of male dominance, sexism and racism. If we don’t rouse ourselves from this stupor, the momentum toward extinction is now practically irreversible. The Grateful Dead like to sing that song: “We need a miracle every day.” We certainly do.


This brings me back to my original point, that outside the van (?) of culture lies on the mapped terra incognito as vast as the New World was to the old in the 15th century, as vast as outer space appears to us now.

The new world outside of culture is a world which can be conquered through fission and language. Many of you have sat through my recitations of what it’s like to smoke DMT. Many of you I’m sure familiar with the medieval woodcut of the guy sticking his head through the cogs and wheels of the cosmic machinery to observe a New World outside. The message here is, and it’s more than a message, I had to message if you just come to events like this and then go back to studying cost accounting. It’s an experience if you will but avail yourselves of these tools. The experiences of the discovery of the New World. And New World as real as any world that we know. It’s not going to come from TIME Magazine or the Secretary-General of the United Nations or anybody like that. It isn’t that the world is tired and played out and then all the frontier is have been explored. Every culture could support that viewpoint. Within certain classes and in certain situations. But in fact it has never been true, and it isn’t true now.

We are monkeys and monkeys love I hell of a good fight, and we have a hell of a fight bearing down on us because we have to clean up the mess. We are going to we are not going to go silently into the gentle nights of extinction, just not going to happen that way. Creativity is going to be at least, struggle is going to be an unavoidable part of trying to steer this battleship away from cataracts of history in which we are now caught. I believe that there is a tremendous obligation on the privilege to classes of them high check industrials democracies, and I daresay that includes everyone in this room, a tremendous obligation to attempt to deconstruct the bomb that we have inherited. That is literally our situation. The gift from the past, from the 19 century coming from the 1940s, from the psychology of Nixon and Johnson in that crowd is a ticking time bomb, Except that it’s a planet. It’s the greatest challenge to intelligence that intelligence has ever faced, and yet it’s precisely the kind of challenge that intelligence should be able to meet. Because what it requires is large-scale strategic planning, implementation of visionary responses. It is not incremental. It is certain, complete and dramatic. I really believe there will only be one chance. We are circling the runway of post history and the engines are running low. There is one approach and then if we miss that approach you’re into the drink.

We The great good fortune to be approaching the end of the millennium. Would it be redundant to say this only happens once in 1000 years? Yes! It’s extraordinarily fortunate.

Once I was in England I ran into somebody I hadn’t seen in 20 years. I was amazed and I said to Rupert, how often does one get a chance to meet someone one hasn’t seen for 20 years, and he said said when I daresay every 20 years or so.

We can use the millennium, this apparent coincidence of our dilemma and a calendrical turning point to create awareness of opportunity. We can use the psychedelics to dissolve boundaries between ourselves and other people, between institutions that govern the governed. Basically we have to insist on the seriousness of the situation and the potential for solutions. What it means, is a much more radical a break with American society then we’ve been willing to contemplate in the last 20 years. We went through this thing with the two-term governor of Arkansas, and it took a year and a half to play that all loud and to see what it comes to. What it comes to is, Washington is convulsed over the possibility of closing one air base near Sacramento. How can we even conceive of this government making an impact on the real problem? It is still government by flimflam. That would be all very well if we had 500 years to dig ourselves out of this dilemma. But it’s a radical political is not opened up in this country, then we are essentially going to amuse and entertain ourselves into extinction.

The ordinary Orthodox system has failed. What Bill Clinton exists to prove, at best, is that people of goodwill make no difference in those institutions. Because they are compromised and corrupted from the very beginning. It’s just the way it is. Those institutions are set up for business as usual. Business as usual at this point is a death sentence on the human race. What has to be done is a tribalizing of culture, an extaticizing of culture, and dissolving of hierarchy. That means self empowerment through claiming the new information technologies, to deconditioning from propaganda, deconditioning from the pharmaphobia that holds everyone within the preprogrammed modes that are being handed down from Madison Avenue in Hollywood. It means actually realizing that your life is your own. Your destiny is your own. It isn’t within the confines of the culture, because the culture is dissolving. To the degree that the word is put out, that phenomenon will accelerate. We are in an extraordinary transition. Everything that has the worked doesn’t. Meaning global economic systems, control of going to spread of the damage disease, etc. Only systems are breaking down, and yet the new systems are not yet in place. They see is a situation of extraordinary malleability at a situation in which people of the great fission vision and great ego can make tremendous impact. So it’s a very dangerous situation. We saw this in the 1930s in Germany and Europe, where there were all kinds of potential’s, I’ll kinds of possibilities. We forget how powerful visionary Marxism was before the rise of fascism. Movements like Bauhaus and Dada and surrealism oh had agendas which disappeared then under the rise of fascism. This must not happen again. What it has to do with, is resisting images that are coming down from the reality studios. Resisting images that are coming off the tube tube, coming through the newspapers and creating a community based on psychedelics, sexuality, sensitivity and good sense. What good sense will lean in this situation is the preservation of the earth, the preservation of diverse city, deconditioning from product fetishism, deconditioning from energy over consumption. All these things we understand, but we seem to like the power to change our minds, or if we have that power, then the power to change other peoples minds. I am in psychedelics not because I think it’s a sure thing, but because I think it is the only game in town. In other words it’s the only thing I’ve ever seen Shane is an individual on the timescale similar to the timescale that we have if we’re going to make a difference. I’ve seen over and over again, I’m sure many of you have, people go into a psychedelic experience jerks and come out halfway decent human beings. Eight hours later.

If we had 500 years to steer global society and to into Safeharbor, it might be possible to do that. But we don’t. I really believe that we are being asked to participate in the birthing of a new order of being, and that there is a reason for a great optimism and hope because it looks like we are just boring into solid rock but in fact there is somebody else boring through that solid rock and they have triangulated our approach and they are hurrying to meet us. I don’t think we fell into the situation because of bad fate or destiny. This is part of the process.

History is what happens when an animal species, and advanced animal, falls under the influence of a transformative a tractor of some sort. History is only about 25,000 years in duration. The interesting part in the last 5000 years, what is happened is that something confounding has and turned the local situation. For was always dormant there, but has toured to wakefulness. It is not God, not the God that in Miltons wonderful phrase hung the lamps like stars in heaven. It isn’t that God. Maybe it’s the God of biology, but whatever it is, it is to us as we are to the termites. It is casting in a Normas transcendental shadow back through time, over the epigenetic the landscape of biological becoming. In our species, for reasons mysterious to me, we mirror this thing and then that has swung our compass away from the forward flow of genetic theme and variation, and in a course orthogonal to biology. A course set on the transcendental. It is pulling us toward it, through the medium of the transforming our languages, of the imagination which is after all this mysterious mental domain in which we are whispered to buy angels, demons, gods and sisters aliens and outs of that intercourse, culture, transforming, shedding its face every hundred years, building on novelty, is ascending towards, reaching out toward the unspeakable. This is been going on, I think for billions of years. It is obviously incontrovertibly been going on since the advent of consciousness send the human species. Now we’re there. We’re in the final domain of the confrontation with the secrets. It is impossible to conceive of history going on for 100s of years. The planet cannot sustain it. All of these social structures and institutions that we have surround ourselves with are obviously lifeboats. They are not meant to last, they are made to carry us toward a certain point in the life of the earth, and we are not out there, or we are within 20, 30, 40, 50 years of confronting the transcendental object at the end of time that Drew us out of the animal body. History is the proof and the shockwave of the Eschaton. This is a hard thing for secular audiences to wrap their minds around because they are familiar with hearing this from a rattlesnake handling Christers. But that simply because religion has always been the repository of the air rational intuition. It never said that the irrational intuition is ipso facto false. It becomes a travesty when hung with the things of dogma derive through the scholarly revelation of weasels, but the intuition is pristine, and the intuition of Islam, Judaism, Christianity and cults innumerable is that there is a finiteness to the historical experience. And then, the more staid the ontology, the further into the future they put ads, so they can continue treating real estate for the next little while.

I think that it is now possible to extrapolate occurs that describe our degradation of the planets. The spreading of epidemic diseases, the ozone hole, the extraction of metals, the clearing of rain forests, the rise of population, the spread of toxic compounds, etc., to see, to convince yourself even from a rational point of view that history is a self-limiting process. If you’re a rationalist, then you must conclude we’re just headed for extinction. I would think then, the rational response to that logical process would be to get your ass in gear and trying to avert the extinction. If you’re not a rationalist, then the conclusion you draw from all that is that we are within striking distance of merging with the mysterious, hyper spatial source of our intelligence and that somehow this is a planetary birthing, something as The break up of Pangaea or the movement of glaciers south from the pole. It’s just part of the process.

Culture exists to transform mind out of the domain of matter. We are rising toward the rarefaction of ourselves into the transcendental plasmate body of alchemical and Buddhist preoccupation. This is what is calling on south of matter. It’s what called the monkeys out of animal organization. It’s what calls technology out of the restless hands of the hominids. It is what is calling all of us toward kind of fusion with the community, with the psychedelic totality of the species and with the larger guy in totality of the planet. This is what it all went for. This is the promise and the redemption of history. Without this redemption, then history becomes the abortion that the materialists fear it is. This is why the legitimate path to the transcend dental, the linking of the individual with the transcendental and through psychedelics now becomes the most important political of work that can be done in the light of the rising of awareness of the end of history. Thank you very much.

One hour on the dot, end of talk. Beginning of Q&A.